Harappan/Indus Civilization (2500 BC-1750 BC)
- The oldest name—Indus Civilization.
- According to archaeological tradition, the most appropriate name—–Harappan Civilization (Harappa—the first discovered site).
- According to geographical point of view, the most suitable name—muds— Saraswati Civilization (the largest concentration of settlement—along the Indus—Saraswati river valley; 80% settlement along the Saraswati).
- The most accepted period—2500 BC—I 750 BC (by Carbon-14 dating).
- John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term ‘Indus Civilization’.
- The Indus Civilization belongs to Proto-Historic Period (Chalcolithic Age! Bronze Age).
- The Indus Civilization was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western U.P. and Northern Maharashtra.
- Scholars generally believe that Harappa. Ghaggar- Mohenjodaroaxjsrepn
the heartland of the Indus Civilization.
- The Northern-most site of Indus Civilization__Ropar (Sutlej )/ Punjab (Earlier); Manda (Chenab)/Jammu-Kashmir (Now).
- The Southern-most site of Indus Civilization-_-Bhagatrav (Kim)/Gujarat
(Earlier); Laimahad (Pravara)/Maharashtra (Now).
The Eastern-most site of Indus Civilizatjon—Alamgizpur (Hindori),1Uttar
The Western-most site of Indus Civilization—Sutkagendor (Dashk),’Makran
Coast (Pakistan—Iran Border).
- Capital Cities_Harappa, Mohenjodaro
- Port Cities._Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdmo, Balakot, Kuntasi
Mohenjodaro — the largest site of Indus Civilization, Rakhigarhi—The largest Indian site of Indus Civilization.
> Common Features of Major Cities: 1. Systematic town-planning on the lines of ‘grid system’ 2. Use of burnt bricks in constructions 3. Underground drainage system (giant water reservoirs in Dholavira) 4. Fortified citadel (exception—Chanhudaro).
>Surkotad, (Kutchh district, Gujarat) the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found.
>Main Crops: Wheat and Barely; Evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and Rangpur (Gujarat) only. Other Crops : Dates, mustard, sesamum, cotton etc. Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.
>Animals: Sheep, goat, humped and humpless bull, buffalo, boar, dog, cat, pig, fowl, deer, tortoise, elephant, camel, rhinoceros, tiger etc.
>Lion was not known to Indus people. From Aman, a single instance of the Indian rhinoceros has been reported.
> Exports : Agriculture products, cotton goods, terracotta figurines, pottery certain beads Conch-shell (from lotha!), ivory products, copper etc.
>A very interesting feature of this civilization was that Iron was not knaw to the people.
>The Sumerian texts refer to trade relations with ‘Melhud’ which was the name given to the Indus region.
> Shatughai and Mundigaq were the Indus sites found in Afghanistan.
>The Sumerian texts also refer to two intermediate stations. Dilmun(Bj-rain) and Makran (Makran coast). SUSA and Ur are Mesopotamian places where Harappan seals were found.
> The Harappan. were the earliest people to produce Cotton (It was called Sindon by the Greeks).
> As there is no evidence of coins, barter is assumed to have been the normal method of exchange of goods.
>Lothal was an ancient port of Indus civilization
>The Indus Civilization was primarily urban.
>There is no clear-cut evidence of the nature of polity but it seems that the ruling authority of Indus Civilization was a class of merchants
>The Harappan people didn’t worship their gods in temple. No temple in fact has been unearthed. An idea of their religion is formed from the statues and figurines found.
There is the evidence of pictographic script, found mainly on seals. The script has not been deciphered so far. but overlap of letters on some of the potsherds from ‘m-’i show that writing was boustrophedon or from right to left and from left to right in alternate lines. It has been referred to as ProtoD ravidian.
The oldest script in Indian subcontinent is the Harappan script, but the oldest deciphered script is Braluni script known from about 5th century BC Most later Indian script developed from Brahmi.
Steatite was mainly used in the manufacture of seals.
Humpless bull is represented in most of the Indus seals.
Inhumation or complete burial was the most common method of disposal of the dead.
The origin of the : ‘actika symbol can be traced to the Indus Civilization.
‘Indra is accused of causing the dedine of Indus Civilisation’ —M. Wheeler.
>- The Rigveda speaks of a battle at a place named ‘HthyUlflpia’ which has been identified with Harappa.
The majority of scholars believe that the makers of this civilization were Dravidian.
‘ Contemporary civilizations of Indus Civilization_MeS0POtamia, Egypt and China.